Scholarly Editing

The Annual of the Association for Documentary Editing

2015, Volume 36

Satire in Circulation: James Russell Lowell's "LETTER FROM A VOLUNTEER IN SALTILLO"

Edited by Todd Thompson and Jessica Showalter
Current Witness: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.

Page Images for this Witness:

green text = presence of punctuation variancered text = presence of substantive varianceblue text = presence of orthographic varianceorange text = presence of formatting alteration

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Substantive Variance

LETTER FROM A VOLUNTEER.
IN SALTILLO.WITNESS: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.
LATE FROM MEXICO.
From the Boston Courier.
LETTER FROM A VOLUNTEER IN SALTILLO.WITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.
LETTER FROM A VOLUNTEER,
IN SALTILLO.WITNESS: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.
Poetry.
From the Boston Courier.
LETTER FROM A VOLUNTEER
IN SALTILLO.WITNESS: Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.
Miscellaneous.
From the Boston Courier.
FROM A VOLUNTEER, IN SALTILLO.WITNESS: New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
SEEN THE ELEPHANT.WITNESS: Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.SELECT POETRY.
SOGERING IN MEXICO.WITNESS: Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
No. II.
A LETTER
FROM MR. HOSEA BIGLOW TO THE HON. J. T. BUCKINGHAM, EDITOR OF THE BOSTON COURIER, COVERING A LETTER FROM MR. B. SAWIN, PRIVATE IN THE MASSACHUSETTS REGIMENT.WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.

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Punctuation Variance

Mister BuckinumWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.MISTER BUCKINUM,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[1]Joseph T. Buckingham (1779–1861), editor of the Boston Courier, and according to newspaper historian Frank Luther Mott, "one of the most respected newspaper men in New England." Mott, American Journalism: A History of Newspapers in the United States through 260 Years: 1690 to 1950 (New York: Macmillan, 1950), 262. the
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[1]Joseph T. Buckingham (1779–1861), editor of the Boston Courier, and according to newspaper historian Frank Luther Mott, "one of the most respected newspaper men in New England." Mott, American Journalism: A History of Newspapers in the United States through 260 Years: 1690 to 1950 (New York: Macmillan, 1950), 262. the WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Punctuation Variance

follerin'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.follerinWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Billet was writ hum by a
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Billet was writ hum by a WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Punctuation Variance

Yung,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.YungWITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
feller of our town that wuz cussed fool
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feller of our town that wuz cussed fool WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Orthographic Variance

enufWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.enuffWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
to goe
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to goe WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Punctuation Variance

atrottin'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.atrottinWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
inter Miss Chiff arter a Drum and fife. it ain't Nater for a feller to let on that he's sick o' any
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inter Miss Chiff arter a Drum and fife. it ain't Nater for a feller to let on that he's sick o' any WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Orthographic Variance

bizznessWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.bizzinessWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.biznessWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
that He went
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that He went WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Orthographic Variance

interWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.intuWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
off his own free will and a
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off his own free will and a WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Punctuation Variance

CordWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Cord,WITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
but I rather
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but I rather WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Orthographic Variance

calklateWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.cal'lateWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
he's
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he's WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Punctuation Variance

middlin'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.middlinWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
tired o'
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tired o' WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Punctuation Variance

voluntearin'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.voluntearinWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
By this Time. I bleeve
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By this Time. I bleeve WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Orthographic Variance

youWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.uWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
may put dependunts on his statemence. For
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may put dependunts on his statemence. For WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Formatting Alteration

iWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.IWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
never heered
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never heered WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Punctuation Variance

nothin'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.nothinWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
bad on him let Alone his
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bad on him let Alone his WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Punctuation Variance

havin'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.havinWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
what Parson Wilbur cals a
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what Parson Wilbur cals a WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Formatting Alteration

pongshongWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.pongshongWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
for cocktales, and he ses it
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for cocktales, and he ses it WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Orthographic Variance

wasWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.wosWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuzWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
a
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a WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Orthographic Variance

sociashunWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.soshiashunWITNESSES: New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
of idees sot him
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of idees sot him WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Punctuation Variance

agoin'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.agoinWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
arter the Crootin Sargient cos he wore a cocktale
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arter the Crootin Sargient cos he wore a cocktale WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Orthographic Variance

onter His Hatt.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.onto his hat.WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
his Folks gin the letter to me and i shew it to parson Wilbur and he ses it
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his Folks gin the letter to me and i shew it to parson Wilbur and he ses it WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Substantive Variance

oughter toWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.oughterWITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Bee printed. send It to mister Buckinum, ses he, i don't ollers agree with
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Bee printed. send It to mister Buckinum, ses he, i don't ollers agree with WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Formatting Alteration

Him,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.him,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
ses he, but by Time,
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ses he, but by Time,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
ses he, I
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ses he, I WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Orthographic Variance

doWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.duWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
like a feller
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like a feller WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Substantive Variance

thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.thanWITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
ain't a Feared.
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ain't a Feared.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I have intusspussed a Few refleckshuns hear and thair. We're
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I have intusspussed a Few refleckshuns hear and thair. We're WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Orthographic Variance

kinderWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.kind o'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
prest with
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prest with WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Punctuation Variance

Hayin'WITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Hayin'.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Hayin.WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Ewers respecfly
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Ewers respecflyWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
HOSEA BIGLOW.
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HOSEA BIGLOW.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
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Formatting Alteration

ThisWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.THISWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
kind o' sogerin'
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kind o' sogerin' WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

ain'tWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.aintWITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
a mite like our October trainin', [2]Annual state militia drill.
X
a mite like our October trainin', [2]Annual state militia drill.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

Where aWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.AWITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
chap could clear right
X
chap could clear right WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

outWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.out from thereWITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
ef
X
ef WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

itWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.'tWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.tWITNESS: Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
only looked like
X
only looked like WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

rainin',WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.rainin'.WITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

Where theWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An' th'WITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
Cunnles
X
CunnlesWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

used toWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847., tu, couldWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848., too, couldWITNESS: Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
kiver up their shappoes with bandanners,
X
kiver up their shappoes with bandanners,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

AndWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An'WITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
send the insines skootin'
X
send the insines skootin' WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

off toWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.toWITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
the
X
the WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

barroomWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.bar-roomWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.bar roomWITNESS: Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
with their banners,
X
with their banners,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
(Fear o'
X
(Fear o' WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

gittinWITNESSES: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.gittin'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
on 'em
X
on 'em WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

spotted,)WITNESSES: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.spotted),WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.
X

Orthographic Variance

andWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.an'WITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
a
X
a WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

fellowWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.fellerWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.fallerWITNESS: Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
could cry quarter
X
could cry quarterWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
Ef he fired away his ramrod arter
X
Ef he fired away his ramrod arter WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

tooWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.tuWITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
much rum
X
much rum WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

and water.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.an' water.WITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
Recollect
X
Recollect WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

whatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wutWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
fun we
X
fun we WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

had,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.hed,WITNESSES: New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
you 'n I
X
you 'n I WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

andWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.an'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Ezry Hollis,
X
Ezry Hollis,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Up there to Waltham [3]A town near Concord, Massachusetts. plain last fall, ahavin' the Cornwallis? [4]According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, "a sort of [military] muster in masquerade."
X
Up there to Waltham [3]A town near Concord, Massachusetts. plain last fall, ahavin' the Cornwallis? [4]According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, "a sort of [military] muster in masquerade."WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[i hait the Site of a feller with a muskit as
X

Formatting Alteration

iWITNESSES: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.IWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
du
X

Orthographic Variance

pisnWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.piznWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
But
X

Orthographic Variance

thereWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.theirWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
is fun to a cornwallis I
X

Punctuation Variance

ain't agoinWITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.aint agoinWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.aint agoin'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
to deny
X

Formatting Alteration

It. H.B.]WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.it.—H.B.]WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[5]In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse. In the 1848 book edition, this note appears as a footnote.
This sort o' thing
X
This sort o' thing WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

ain'tWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.aintWITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
jest like
X
jest like WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

that—IWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thet,—IWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.thet—IWITNESS: Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
wish
X
wish WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thetWITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
I
X
I WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

was furder—WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuz furder,—WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.wuz furder—WITNESS: Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
[he
X

Orthographic Variance

meensWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.meansWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Not quite so fur i
X

Punctuation Variance

gess. H.B.]WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.guess.—H.B.]WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[6]In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse. In the 1848 book edition, this note appears as a footnote.
Nimepunce [7]According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, "ninepence, twelve and a half cents." a day
X
Nimepunce [7]According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, "ninepence, twelve and a half cents." a day WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

forWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ferWITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
killin' folks comes kind o' low
X
killin' folks comes kind o' low WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

forWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ferWITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
murder,
X
murder,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

(WhyWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.(WyWITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
I've worked out to
X
I've worked out to WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

slaughterin'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.slarterin'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.slarterinWITNESS: Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
some
X
some WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

for deacon Cephas BillinsWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.fer Deacon Cephas Billins,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.for Deacon Cephas Billins,WITNESS: Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

AndWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An'WITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
in the hardest times there
X
in the hardest times there WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

wasWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuzWITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
I ollers tetched ten shillins,)
X
I ollers tetched ten shillins,)WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
There's
X
There's WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

somethin'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.sutthin'WITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
gits into my throat
X
gits into my throat WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thetWITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
makes it hard to swaller,
X
makes it hard to swaller,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
It comes so nateral to think about a hempen collar; [8]A hangman’s rope.
X
It comes so nateral to think about a hempen collar; [8]A hangman’s rope.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
It's
X
It's WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

glory—WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.glory,—WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.glory, WITNESS: Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
but, in spite
X
but, in spite WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

ofWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.o'WITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
all my tryin' to
X
all my tryin' to WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

gitWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.getWITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.git aWITNESS: Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
callous,
X
callous,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
I feel a kind o' in a
X
I feel a kind o' in a WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

cart a ridin'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.cart, aridin'WITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
to the
X
to the WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

gallows.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.gallus.WITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
[thatere's wot
X

Formatting Alteration

IWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.iWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
cal
X

Orthographic Variance

nateralWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.natteralWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
paythos,
X

Punctuation Variance

its tetchin.WITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.its tetchin'.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.it's tetchin'.WITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
H.B.]
[9]In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse.
But
X
But WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

whenWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.wenWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
it comes to bein'
X
it comes to bein'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

killedWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.killed,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

yerWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.yeWITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
I felt streaked
X
I felt streakedWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
The fust time ever I found out
X
The fust time ever I found out WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

whyWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wyWITNESSES: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
baggonets
X
baggonets WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

was peaked;WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuz peaked;WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.wuz peaked.WITNESS: Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA), December 23, 1848.
Here's how it
X
Here's how it WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

was:WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuz:WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I started out to go to a fandango,
X
I started out to go to a fandango,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
The
X
The WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

sentinelWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.sentinulWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
he ups
X
he ups WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

and says "that'sWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.an' sez, "Thet'sWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
furder
X
furder WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

thanWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.'anWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
you can
X
you can WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

go;"WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.go."WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
"None o' your sarse,"
X
"None o' your sarse," WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

sesWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.sezWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I;
X
I; WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

ses he "StandWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.sez he, "Stan'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
back!"
X
back!" WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

"Ain'tWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847."AintWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
you a buster?" [10]According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, a "buster" is a "roistering blade; used also as a general superlative."
X
you a buster?" [10]According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, a "buster" is a "roistering blade; used also as a general superlative."WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

Ses IWITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Ses I,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Sez I,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
"I'm up to all
X
"I'm up to all WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

that 'ere,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thet air,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I guess I've
X
I guess I've WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

beenWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.benWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
to muster;
X
to muster;WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I know
X
I know WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

why sentinels areWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wy sentinuls airWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
sot; you
X
sot; you WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

ain'tWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.aintWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
agoin' to eat us;
X
agoin' to eat us;WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Caleb
X
Caleb WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

hain'tWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.haintWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
no monopoly to court the seenoreetas; [11]Caleb Cushing (1800–1879) was Massachusetts state legislator who defended the war (which was unpopular in Massachusetts from the outset) and urged the legislature to fund a volunteer regiment. When the Whig-dominated legislature refused, Cushing resigned and spent $12,000 of his own money to organize the First Massachusetts Volunteers regiment, of which he became colonel (he was later promoted to brigadier general). Cushing broke his ankle while stepping off a sidewalk in the Matamoros town square to make way for a Mexican woman to pass. He was subsequently mocked in the press for injuring himself while "courting senoritas." See John M. Belohlavek, "Race, Progress, and Destiny: Caleb Cushing and the Quest for American Empire” in Manifest Destiny and Empire: American Antebellum Expansionism, ed. Sam W. Haynes and Christopher Morris (College Station: University of Texas at Arlington; Texas A&M University Press, 1997), 38; and Belohlavek, Broken Glass: Caleb Cushing and the Shattering of the Union (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2005), 199.
My folks to
X
My folks to WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

home areWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.hum airWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
full
X
full WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

asWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ezWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
good
X
good WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

asWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ezWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
hisn be, by golly!"
X
hisn be, by golly!"WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

AndWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
so
X
so WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

asWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ezWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I
X
I WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

wasWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuzWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
goin'
X
goin' WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

byWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.by,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
not thinkin'
X
not thinkin' WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

whatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wutWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
would
X
would WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

follyWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.folly,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
The everlastin' cus he stuck his
X
The everlastin' cus he stuck his WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

one prongedWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.one-prongedWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
pitchfork in me
X
pitchfork in meWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

AndWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
made a hole right thru my close
X
made a hole right thru my close WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

asWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ezWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
ef I
X
ef I WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

wasWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuzWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
an in'my.
X
an in'my.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Wal, it beats all how big I felt hoorawin' in
X
Wal, it beats all how big I felt hoorawin' in WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

oldWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.oleWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Funnel [12]Faneuil Hall, a Boston meeting hall built in 1742.
X
Funnel [12]Faneuil Hall, a Boston meeting hall built in 1742.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Wen Mister Bolles [13]John Augustus Bolles (1809–1878), who was Massachusetts secretary of state in 1843, published "Essay on a Congress of Nations, for the Pacific Adjustment of International Disputes" with the American Peace Society in 1839. He presented Lieutenant Colonel Isaac Wright at the Faneuil Hall rally on January 23, 1847, on behalf of subscribers supporting the First Massachusetts Regiment. Frank Beverly Williams, "Notes," in The Writings of James Russell Lowell: Poems by James Russell Lowell (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1892), 8:400. he gin the sword to our
X
Wen Mister Bolles [13]John Augustus Bolles (1809–1878), who was Massachusetts secretary of state in 1843, published "Essay on a Congress of Nations, for the Pacific Adjustment of International Disputes" with the American Peace Society in 1839. He presented Lieutenant Colonel Isaac Wright at the Faneuil Hall rally on January 23, 1847, on behalf of subscribers supporting the First Massachusetts Regiment. Frank Beverly Williams, "Notes," in The Writings of James Russell Lowell: Poems by James Russell Lowell (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1892), 8:400. he gin the sword to our WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Formatting Alteration

leftenantWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.LeftenantWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Cunnle,
X
Cunnle,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
(It's Mister
X
(It's Mister WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

secondary Bolles—WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Secondary Bolles, WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[the ignerant creeter means
X

Punctuation Variance

Sekketary!WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Sekketary;WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
but he ollers stuck to his books like
X

Orthographic Variance

kobbler's whacksWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.kobler's whacksWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.cobbler's waxWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
to an ile-stone.
X

Punctuation Variance

H.B.]WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.—H.B.]WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[14]In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse. In the 1848 book edition, this note appears as a footnote.
X

Orthographic Variance

—thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
writ the
X
writ the WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

priceWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.prizeWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
peace
X
peace WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

essay,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.essay;WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

That's whyWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Thet's wyWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
he didn't list himself along o' us, I
X
he didn't list himself along o' us, I WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

dessay,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.dessay,)WITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

AndWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Rantoul, [15]Robert Rantoul Jr. (1805–1852), a Boston lawyer appointed as US district attorney for Massachusetts in 1846. Rantoul was best remembered for his spirited opposition to capital punishment. See Luther Hamilton, ed., Memoirs, Speeches, and Writings of Robert Rantoul (Boston: John P. Jewett, 1854).
X
Rantoul, [15]Robert Rantoul Jr. (1805–1852), a Boston lawyer appointed as US district attorney for Massachusetts in 1846. Rantoul was best remembered for his spirited opposition to capital punishment. See Luther Hamilton, ed., Memoirs, Speeches, and Writings of Robert Rantoul (Boston: John P. Jewett, 1854).WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

too,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847. tu,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
talked pooty loud, but don't put his foot in
X
talked pooty loud, but don't put his foot in WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

itWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.it,WITNESS: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.
X

Orthographic Variance

CosWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.CozWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
human life's so sacred
X
human life's so sacred WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
he's principled
X
he's principled WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

agin' it,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.agin' it,—WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

(ThoughWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.ThoughWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.(Tho'WITNESS: New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
I myself can't rightly see it's any
X
I myself can't rightly see it's any WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

worseWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wusWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
achokin' on 'em
X
achokin' on 'emWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Than puttin' bullets thru their
X
Than puttin' bullets thru their WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

lightsWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.lights,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[16]According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, "their bowels." or with a bagnet pokin' on
X
[16]According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, "their bowels." or with a bagnet pokin' on WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

'em,)WITNESSES: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.em,)WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.'em;WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
How
X
How WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

dreffulWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.dreffleWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
slick he reeled it
X
slick he reeled it WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

offWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.off,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
(like Blitz [17]Antonio van Zant (1810–1877), an English magician and ventriloquist who lived in the United States after 1834 and performed under the name "Signor Blitz." at our lyceum [18]A public institution that offered lectures, debates, drama, and entertainment to a local community. On the lyceum movement in nineteenth-century America, see Carl Bode, The American Lyceum: Town Meeting of the Mind (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1968).
X
(like Blitz [17]Antonio van Zant (1810–1877), an English magician and ventriloquist who lived in the United States after 1834 and performed under the name "Signor Blitz." at our lyceum [18]A public institution that offered lectures, debates, drama, and entertainment to a local community. On the lyceum movement in nineteenth-century America, see Carl Bode, The American Lyceum: Town Meeting of the Mind (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1968).WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Ahaulin' ribbins from his chops so quick you skeercely see 'em,)
X
Ahaulin' ribbins from his chops so quick you skeercely see 'em,)WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
About the Anglo-Saxon race
X
About the Anglo-Saxon race WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

(andWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.(an'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
saxons would be handy
X
saxons would be handyWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
To
X
To WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

doWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.duWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
the
X
the WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

berryin'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.buryin'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
down here upon the
X
down here upon the WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

Rio Grandy)WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Rio Grandy),WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
About our patriotic pas
X
About our patriotic pas WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

andWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.an'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
our star-spangled banner,
X
our star-spangled banner,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Our country's bird alookin' on
X
Our country's bird alookin' on WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

andWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.an'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
singin' out hosanner, [19]National symbols were used to recruit volunteers, rally troops in the field, and build consensus at home. According to historian Robert Johannsen, "the Mexican War was the first national conflict in which [national symbols] played an important part. The soldiers, like their countrymen back home, saw in their symbols—the flag, the bald eagle, the national songs—objective representations of the nation's democratic faith." Johannsen, To the Halls of the Montezumas: The Mexican War in the American Imagination (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 52.
X

Orthographic Variance

AndWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
how he (Mister B. himself)
X
how he (Mister B. himself) WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

wasWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuzWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
happy
X
happy WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

for WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.fer WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

Ameriky,—WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Ameriky—WITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
I felt,
X
I felt, WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

asWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ezWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
sister Patience
X
sister PatienceWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

ses,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.sez,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
a leetle mite
X
a leetle mite WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

histericky.WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.histericky,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
I felt, I swon,
X
I felt, I swon, WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

asWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ezWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
though it
X
though it WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

wasWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuzWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
a
X
a WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

dreffulWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.dreffleWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
kind o' privilege
X
kind o' privilegeWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Atrampin' round thru
X
Atrampin' round thru WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

BostingWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.BostonWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
streets among the gutter's
X
streets among the gutter's WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

drivelage,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.drivelage;WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I act'lly thought it
X
I act'lly thought it WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

wasWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuzWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
a treat to hear a
X
a treat to hear a WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

leetleWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.littleWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
drummin',
X
drummin',WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

AndWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
it did bonyfidy seem
X
it did bonyfidy seem WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

MilanyumWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.MillanyumWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.millanyumWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

was comin'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847. wuz acomin'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Wen all on us got suits (darned like them wore in the state prison)
X
Wen all on us got suits (darned like them wore in the state prison)WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

AndWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
every feller felt
X
every feller felt WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

asWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ezWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
though all Mexico
X
though all Mexico WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

wasWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuzWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
hisn.
X
hisn.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[it must be aloud that thare
X

Orthographic Variance

isWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.'sWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
a streak o' nater in
X

Punctuation Variance

lovin, sho.WITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.lovin' sho.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.lovin' sho,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
but it
X

Orthographic Variance

sartnlyWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.sartinlyWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
is 1 of the curusest things in nater to
X

Orthographic Variance

cWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.seeWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
a
X

Orthographic Variance

rispeckedableWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.rispecktableWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
dri goods [20]Dry goods: Merchandise such as textiles, ready-to-wear clothes, and other items distinct from those sold in grocery stores.
X

Orthographic Variance

deelerWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.dealerWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
(deekon off a
X

Orthographic Variance

churchWITNESSES: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.chutchWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
mayby) a riggin' himself out in the Weigh they du and struttin' round in the Reign aspilin' his trowsis and makin' wet goods of himself. Ef
X

Orthographic Variance

anythin' isWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.any thin 'sWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
foolisher and
X

Orthographic Variance

more dickilusWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.moor dicklusWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
than militerry gloary it is milishy
X

Punctuation Variance

gloary. H.B.]WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.gloary.—H.B.]WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[21]In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse. In the 1848 book edition, this note appears as a footnote.
This
X
This WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

'ere'sWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.ere'sWITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
about the meanest place a skunk could
X
about the meanest place a skunk could WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

well diskiver,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wal diskiverWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

Saltillo'sWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.(Saltillo'sWITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[22]Capital of Coahuila in Mexico, captured by General Zachary Taylor on November 16, 1846. US troops stationed in Saltillo fought against Mexican general Santa Anna's forces in the Battle of Buena Vista, a nearby city, in February 1847. See David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, The Mexican War (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2006), 109–13. Mexican, I
X
[22]Capital of Coahuila in Mexico, captured by General Zachary Taylor on November 16, 1846. US troops stationed in Saltillo fought against Mexican general Santa Anna's forces in the Battle of Buena Vista, a nearby city, in February 1847. See David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, The Mexican War (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2006), 109–13. Mexican, I WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

believe,WITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.blieve,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.b'lieve,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

for wotWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847. fer wutWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
we call
X
we call WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

Salt-river)WITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Saltriver)WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Salt-river).WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[23]Salt River was a popular symbol in the mid-nineteenth-century United States for political defeat. For more on this nickname, see Liz Hutter, "'Ho for Salt River!': Politics, Loss, and Satire," Common-Place 7, no. 3 (April 2007), http://www.common-place.org/vol-07/no-03/hutter/; and Hans Sperber and James N. Tidwell, "Words and Phrases in American Politics: Fact and Fiction about Salt River," American Speech 26, no. 4 (December 1951): 241–47.
X
[23]Salt River was a popular symbol in the mid-nineteenth-century United States for political defeat. For more on this nickname, see Liz Hutter, "'Ho for Salt River!': Politics, Loss, and Satire," Common-Place 7, no. 3 (April 2007), http://www.common-place.org/vol-07/no-03/hutter/; and Hans Sperber and James N. Tidwell, "Words and Phrases in American Politics: Fact and Fiction about Salt River," American Speech 26, no. 4 (December 1951): 241–47.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
The sort o' trash a feller
X
The sort o' trash a feller WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

getsWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.gitsWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
to eat
X
to eat WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

doesWITNESSES: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.doosWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
beat all nater,
X
beat all nater,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I'd give a year's pay
X
I'd give a year's pay WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

forWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ferWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
a smell
X
a smell WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

ofWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.o'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
one good
X
one good WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

bluenoseWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.blue-noseWITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
tater; [24]A purplish potato grown in New England and Nova Scotia.
X
tater; [24]A purplish potato grown in New England and Nova Scotia.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[i hed insutted
X

Orthographic Variance

hereWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.hearWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
an S.A. on the coulter of the tater, but parson W. advised agin
X

Punctuation Variance

leavinWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.leavin'WITNESS: New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
on it In. i
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Orthographic Variance

wouldWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.woodWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
jist remark that
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Orthographic Variance

taters areWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.taters airWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.aters airWITNESS: Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.
lookin' well hour way. H.B.]
[25]In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse.
The country here
X
The country here WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Mister Bolles
X
Mister Bolles WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

declar'dWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.declaredWITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
to be so
X
to be so WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

charmin',WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.charmin'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Throughout is swarmin' with the most alarmin'
X
Throughout is swarmin' with the most alarmin' WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

kindsWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.kindWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
o'
X
o' WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

varmin',WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.varmin'.WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.varmin,WITNESS: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.
He talked about delishis froots, but then it
X
He talked about delishis froots, but then it WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

wasWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuzWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
a
X
a WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

whopperWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wopperWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[26]According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, a "whopper" is "an uncommonly large lie; as, that General Taylor is in favor of the Wilmot Proviso." all,
X
[26]According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, a "whopper" is "an uncommonly large lie; as, that General Taylor is in favor of the Wilmot Proviso." all,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
The
X
The WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

wholeWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.hollWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
on't 's mud
X
on't 's mud WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

andWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.an'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
prickly pears, with here
X
prickly pears, with here WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

andWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.an'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
there a
X
there a WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

chapparal:WITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.chapparal;WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
You see a feller peekin' out,
X
You see a feller peekin' out, WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

and,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.an',WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

firstWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847. fustWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
you know, a lariat [27]A rope used as a lasso.
X
you know, a lariat [27]A rope used as a lasso.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

IsWITNESSES: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.IfWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.
round your throat
X
round your throat WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

andWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.an'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
you a copse,
X
you a copse, WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

'foreWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.'forWITNESS: New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
you can say,
X
you can say, WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

"Wat areWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847."Wut airWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
ye at?"
X
ye at?"WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[these fellers
X

Orthographic Variance

airWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.areWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
verry proppilly called Rank
X

Orthographic Variance

Herows,WITNESS: New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Heroes,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
and the
X

Orthographic Variance

moarWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.moreWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
tha
X

Orthographic Variance

kilWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.killWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
the
X

Orthographic Variance

wrankerWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.rankerWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
and
X

Orthographic Variance

moarWITNESS: New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.moorWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.moreWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Herowick tha
X

Orthographic Variance

beckum. H.B.]WITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.beekum. H.B.]WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.bekum.—H.B.]WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[28]In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse. In the 1848 book edition, this note appears as a footnote.
You never see
X
You never see WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

sichWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.sechWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
darned gret bugs (it may not be
X
darned gret bugs (it may not be WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

irrelevant,WITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.irrelevantWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
To say I've seen a scarabaeus pilularius [29]A dung beetle.
X
To say I've seen a scarabaeus pilularius [29]A dung beetle.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

as big asWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.big asWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.big ezWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
a year old elephant,)
X
a year old elephant,)WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[it
X

Orthographic Variance

wasWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuzWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
"tumblebug" as he Writ it, but the parson put the Latten instid. i sed tother maid better meeter, but he
X

Orthographic Variance

sedWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.saidWITNESSES: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
tha was eddykated peepl to
X

Orthographic Variance

BostingWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Bosting,WITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.BostonWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
and tha
X

Orthographic Variance

woodn'tWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wouldn'tWITNESSES: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
stan' it no
X

Substantive Variance

now.WITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.how.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

idnoWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.idnowWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
as tha wood and
X

Orthographic Variance

idnoWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.idnowWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
as tha
X

Substantive Variance

wood'nt. H.B.]WITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.woodn't. H.B.]WITNESS: New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wood. H.B.]WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.wood.—H.B.]WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[30]In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse. In the 1848 book edition, this note appears as a footnote.
The rigiment come up one day in time to stop a red bug
X
The rigiment come up one day in time to stop a red bugWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
From runnin' off with Cunnle Wright [31]Isaac Hull Wright (1814–1886) was a Massachusetts state senator before raising a company of Irishmen to serve in the First Massachusetts Regiment. He took over command of this regiment after Caleb Cushing was promoted to brigadier general. See Massachusetts Historical Society, "'Under the Commission of Massachusetts We Shall March Forward to the Mountain Plains of the Aztecs': Recruiting Volunteers for the First Massachusetts Volunteer Regiment during the Mexican War," accessed August 27, 2014, http://www.masshist.org/objects/2012november.php.
X

Punctuation Variance

WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.,—WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
't
X
't WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

wasWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuzWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
jest a common cimex lectularius. [32]A bedbug.
X
jest a common cimex lectularius. [32]A bedbug.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
One night I started up
X
One night I started up WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

an eend, andWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.an eend andWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.on eend andWITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.on eend an'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
thought I
X
thought I WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

wasWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuzWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
to hum agin,
X
to hum agin,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I heern a horn, thinks I it's Sol the fisherman
X
I heern a horn, thinks I it's Sol the fishermanWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

hasWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.hezWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
come agin,
X
come agin,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
His
X
HisWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

belloswsesWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.bellowsesWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
is sound
X
is sound WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

enough—asWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.enough,—ezWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I'm a livin' creeter,
X
I'm a livin' creeter,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I felt a thing go thru my
X
I felt a thing go thru my WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

leg—'twas nothin'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.leg—'twas nothingWITNESS: New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.leg,—'t wuz nothin'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
more 'n a skeeter!
X
more 'n a skeeter!WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Then there's the yaller fever, [33]Yellow fever: an acute viral disease that is spread by mosquitos and attacks the body's internal organs, including the liver, whose failure lends the sufferer's skin a yellow hue. Symptoms include nausea, fever, chills, and muscle pain. Yellow fever was a major peril for US soldiers in Mexico, and General Winfield Scott even factored in yellow fever season when planning the invasion of Veracruz in October 1846. Heidler and Heidler, The Mexican War, 89, 138n. tu, they call it here el
X
Then there's the yaller fever, [33]Yellow fever: an acute viral disease that is spread by mosquitos and attacks the body's internal organs, including the liver, whose failure lends the sufferer's skin a yellow hue. Symptoms include nausea, fever, chills, and muscle pain. Yellow fever was a major peril for US soldiers in Mexico, and General Winfield Scott even factored in yellow fever season when planning the invasion of Veracruz in October 1846. Heidler and Heidler, The Mexican War, 89, 138n. tu, they call it here el WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

vomito,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.vomito,—WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[34]Also known as "el negro vomito," the final stage of yellow fever, wherein the victim experiences bloody vomiting. Heidler and Heidler, The Mexican War, 138n.
X
[34]Also known as "el negro vomito," the final stage of yellow fever, wherein the victim experiences bloody vomiting. Heidler and Heidler, The Mexican War, 138n.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
(Come,
X
(Come, WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
wun't du, you landcrab
X
wun't du, you landcrab WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

thereWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.there,WITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I tell ye to
X
I tell ye to WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

letWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.le'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
go my
X
go my WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

toe!WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.toe?WITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.
My gracious! it's a scorpion
X
My gracious! it's a scorpion WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

that'sWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thet'sWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
took a shine to
X
took a shine to WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

plaWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.playWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
with
X
with WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

it,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.'t,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

I'm 'fraid toWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.I darsn'tWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
skeer the tarnal thing
X
skeer the tarnal thing WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

forWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ferWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
fear he'd run away with
X
fear he'd run away with WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

it.)WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.'t.)WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Afore I come away from
X
Afore I come away from WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

homeWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.humWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I
X
I WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

hadWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.hedWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
a strong persuasion
X
a strong persuasionWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

ThatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ThetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Mexicans worn't
X
Mexicans worn't WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

huming beans—WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.human beans,—WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[he means
X

Orthographic Variance

hewmanWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.humanWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
beins, that's
X

Orthographic Variance

wotWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wutWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
he
X

Orthographic Variance

meens.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.means.WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
i spose he kinder thought tha
X

Orthographic Variance

wasWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.wuzWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

huemanWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.humanWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
beans ware the Xisle Poles [35]"Exile Poles": Biglow refers to a wave of Polish emigrants—many of them intellectual and political elites—during the "Great Immigration," which began after the November Uprising of 1830–31. See Slawomir R. Kalembka, "'Great' Polish Political Emigration (1831–1870)," in Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions, accessed August 27, 2014, http://www.ohio.edu/chastain/index.htm. comes
X

Punctuation Variance

from. H.B.]WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.from.—H.B.]WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
[36]In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse. In the 1848 book edition, this note appears as a footnote. —an ourang outang nation,
X
—an ourang outang nation,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
A sort o' folks a chap could kill
X
A sort o' folks a chap could kill WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

andWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.an'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
never dream on 't
X
never dream on 't WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

arter;WITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.arterWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.arter,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
No more 'n a feller'd dream o' pigs
X
No more 'n a feller'd dream o' pigs WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
he
X
he WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

had hadWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.hed hedWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
to slarter;
X
to slarter;WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I'd an idee
X
I'd an idee WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
they were built arter the darkie fashion all, [37]In his seminal history of the construction of race in the United States, Reginald Horsman claims that the US-Mexico War was the "catalyst in overt adoption of racial Anglo-Saxonism." This racist discourse portrayed Mexican citizens as a "mongrel race adulterated by extensive interbreeding with Indians," and they were "lumped together with Indians and blacks as an inferior race." Horsman, Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), 198, 208–13.
X
they were built arter the darkie fashion all, [37]In his seminal history of the construction of race in the United States, Reginald Horsman claims that the US-Mexico War was the "catalyst in overt adoption of racial Anglo-Saxonism." This racist discourse portrayed Mexican citizens as a "mongrel race adulterated by extensive interbreeding with Indians," and they were "lumped together with Indians and blacks as an inferior race." Horsman, Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), 198, 208–13.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

AndWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
kickin' colored folks
X
kickin' colored folks WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

aboutWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.about,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
you
X
you WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

know 'isWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.know 'sWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.know, 'sWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
a kind o' national;
X
a kind o' national;WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
But
X
But WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

whenWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wenWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I jined I worn't so wise
X
I jined I worn't so wise WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

as that 'ereWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ez thet airWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
queen o' Sheby, [38]In 1 Kings 10, the Queen of Sheba, hearing of the wisdom of Solomon of Israel, travels there to test him with a series of questions.
X
queen o' Sheby, [38]In 1 Kings 10, the Queen of Sheba, hearing of the wisdom of Solomon of Israel, travels there to test him with a series of questions.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

For,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Fer,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
come to look at 'em,
X
come to look at 'em, WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

theWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.theyWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

ain'tWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.aintWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
much diff'rent from
X
much diff'rent from WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

wotWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wutWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
we be,
X
we be,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

AndWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
here we air ascrougin' 'em out o'
X
here we air ascrougin' 'em out o' WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

theirWITNESSES: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thirWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
own dominions,
X
own dominions,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

Ashelterin'WITNESSES: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Asheltrin'WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
'em,
X
'em, WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

asWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ezWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Caleb
X
Caleb WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

ses,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.sez,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
under our eagle's pinions, [39]Pinions: Eagle wings. Cushing was an ardent expansionist, which he often defended in terms of Anglo-Saxon superiority. For instance, in 1857 he said, "It happens that men, nations, races, may, must, will perish before us. That is inevitable. There can be no change for the better save at the expense of that which is. Out of decay springs fresh life." Quoted in Belohlavek, "Race, Progress, and Destiny," 21.
X
under our eagle's pinions, [39]Pinions: Eagle wings. Cushing was an ardent expansionist, which he often defended in terms of Anglo-Saxon superiority. For instance, in 1857 he said, "It happens that men, nations, races, may, must, will perish before us. That is inevitable. There can be no change for the better save at the expense of that which is. Out of decay springs fresh life." Quoted in Belohlavek, "Race, Progress, and Destiny," 21.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Wich means to take a feller up
X
Wich means to take a feller up WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

jistWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.jestWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
by the slack
X
by the slack WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

of 's trowsisWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.of 's trowsis,WITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.o' 's trowsisWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

AndWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
walk him Spanish [40]"A painful and humiliating means of hurrying one by holding his seat and neck and forcing him to walk." Barbara Ann Kipfer, ed., Dictionary of American Slang, 4th ed. (New York: Collins, 2000), 186. clean right out o' all his homes
X
walk him Spanish [40]"A painful and humiliating means of hurrying one by holding his seat and neck and forcing him to walk." Barbara Ann Kipfer, ed., Dictionary of American Slang, 4th ed. (New York: Collins, 2000), 186. clean right out o' all his homes WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

andWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.an'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
houses;
X
houses;WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Wal, it
X
Wal, it WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

doesWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.doosWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
seem a curus way, but then hooraw
X
seem a curus way, but then hooraw WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

forWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ferWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Jackson! [41]Andrew Jackson (1767–1845), the seventh US president (1829–37) and leader of the Jacksonian Democrats.
X
Jackson! [41]Andrew Jackson (1767–1845), the seventh US president (1829–37) and leader of the Jacksonian Democrats.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
It must be right,
X
It must be right, WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

forWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ferWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Caleb
X
Caleb WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

sesWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.sezWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
it's reg'lar
X
it's reg'lar WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

Anglesaxon.WITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Anglosaxon.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
The Mex'cans don't fight fair, they say, they
X
The Mex'cans don't fight fair, they say, they WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

pisonWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.piz'nWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
all the water, [42]During General William Worth's siege of Puebla in the summer of 1847, US troops were warned that Mexican forces planned to poison them. John C. Pinheiro, Manifest Ambitions: James K. Polk and Civil-Military Relations during the Mexican War (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2007), 93.
X
all the water, [42]During General William Worth's siege of Puebla in the summer of 1847, US troops were warned that Mexican forces planned to poison them. John C. Pinheiro, Manifest Ambitions: James K. Polk and Civil-Military Relations during the Mexican War (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2007), 93.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

And doWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An' duWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
amazin' lots o' things
X
amazin' lots o' things WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

that isn't whatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thet is n't wutWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
they
X
they WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

oughter,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ough'to;WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

Not havin' any leadWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Not havin' any lead,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Bein' they haint no lead,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
they make their bullets out o'
X
they make their bullets out o' WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

copperWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.copper,WITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.
[43]Due to a shortage of iron, the Mexican army used mostly copper balls for their cannons; these were less effective than iron cannonballs because they were more lightweight, and so they often fell short of their targets. David A. Clary, Eagles and Empire: The United States, Mexico, and the Struggle for a Continent (New York: Bantam, 2009), 109, 137.
X
[43]Due to a shortage of iron, the Mexican army used mostly copper balls for their cannons; these were less effective than iron cannonballs because they were more lightweight, and so they often fell short of their targets. David A. Clary, Eagles and Empire: The United States, Mexico, and the Struggle for a Continent (New York: Bantam, 2009), 109, 137.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

AndWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
shoot the
X
shoot the WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

darndWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.darnedWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
things at us, tu,
X
things at us, tu, WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

whichWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wichWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Caleb
X
Caleb WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

ses ain'tWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.sez aintWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
proper;
X
proper;WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
He
X
He WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

sesWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.sezWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
they'd
X
they'd WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

ought toWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.oughterWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ough' toWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
stan' right up
X
stan' right up WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

andWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.an'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
let us pop 'em fairly,
X
let us pop 'em fairly,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
(Guess
X
(Guess WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

whenWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wenWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
he ketches 'em at
X
he ketches 'em at WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
he'll
X
he'll WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

have toWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.have tuWITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.hev toWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
git up airly,)
X
git up airly,)WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

ThatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ThetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
our
X
our WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Formatting Alteration

Nation'sWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.nation'sWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
bigger 'n theirn
X
bigger 'n theirn WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

andWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.an'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
so its rights
X
so its rights WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

areWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.airWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
bigger,
X
bigger,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

And thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An' thetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
it's all to make 'em free
X
it's all to make 'em free WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
we
X
we WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

areWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.airWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
pullin' trigger,
X
pullin' trigger,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

ThatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ThetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Anglo Saxondom's idee's abreakin' 'em to pieces,
X
Anglo Saxondom's idee's abreakin' 'em to pieces,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

And thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An' thetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
idee's
X
idee's WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
every man
X
every man WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

doesWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.doosWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
jest
X
jest WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

whatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wutWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
he damn pleases;
X
he damn pleases;WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Ef I don't make his meanin'
X
Ef I don't make his meanin' WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

clearWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.clear,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
perhaps in some
X
perhaps in some WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

respeckWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.respeksWITNESS: New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.respexWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.respekWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.
I can,
X
I can,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I know
X
I know WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.thetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
"every man" don't mean a nigger or a
X
"every man" don't mean a nigger or a WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

Mexican.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Mexican;
An' there's another thing I know, an' thet is, ef these creeturs,
Thet stick an Anglosaxon mask onto State-prison feeturs,
Should come to Jaalam Centre fer to argify an' spout on 't,
The gals 'ould count the silver spoons the minnit they cleared out on 'tWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
This goin'
X
This goin' WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

whereWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wareWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
glory waits
X
glory waits WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

ye, hain'tWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.ye hain'tWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ye haintWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
one agreeable feetur,
X
one agreeable feetur,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
An' ef it worn't
X
An' ef it worn't WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

forWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ferWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
wakin' snakes, I'd home agin short meter;
X
wakin' snakes, I'd home agin short meter;WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

O,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848."O,WITNESS: Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.
wouldn't I be off, quick time, ef
X
wouldn't I be off, quick time, ef WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

't warn't thatWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.'t worn't thatWITNESSES: Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.'tworn't thatWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.'t worn't thetWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I
X
I WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

wasWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuzWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
sartin
X
sartinWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
They'd let the
X
They'd let the WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

day lightWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.daylightWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
into me to pay me
X
into me to pay me WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

forWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ferWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
desartin! [44]Desertion rates in the US-Mexico War were high. Of a total 26,922 soldiers enlisted in the regular army, 2,849 deserted; 3,900 of 59,000 volunteers deserted. Whereas regulars who deserted had bounties put on their heads, volunteers could desert or obtain discharges with relative ease, especially before their regiments arrived in Mexico. See Paul Foos, A Short, Offhand, Killing Affair: Soldiers and Social Conflict during the Mexican-American War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), 100–112.
X
desartin! [44]Desertion rates in the US-Mexico War were high. Of a total 26,922 soldiers enlisted in the regular army, 2,849 deserted; 3,900 of 59,000 volunteers deserted. Whereas regulars who deserted had bounties put on their heads, volunteers could desert or obtain discharges with relative ease, especially before their regiments arrived in Mexico. See Paul Foos, A Short, Offhand, Killing Affair: Soldiers and Social Conflict during the Mexican-American War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), 100–112.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I don't approve o' tellin' tales, but jest to you I may state
X
I don't approve o' tellin' tales, but jest to you I may stateWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Our ossifers
X
Our ossifers WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

ain't wotWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.aint wutWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
they wuz
X
they wuz WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

before weWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.before theyWITNESS: Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.afore theyWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
left the
X
left the WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

Bay-state;WITNESSES: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Baystate;WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Bay state;WITNESS: Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.
[45]A nickname for Massachusetts due to its proximity to several bays.
X
[45]A nickname for Massachusetts due to its proximity to several bays.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

WhenWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ThenWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
it
X
it WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

was WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.wuz WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

"Mister Sawin, WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.'Mister Sawin, WITNESS: Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.
X

Formatting Alteration

Sir,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.sir,WITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
you're middlin' well now, be ye?
X
you're middlin' well now, be ye?WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Step up an' take a nipper, [46]To drink a small amount of alcohol.
X
Step up an' take a nipper, [46]To drink a small amount of alcohol.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

Sir,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.sir,WITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.sir;WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I'm dreffle glad to see
X
I'm dreffle glad to see WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

ye;"WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ye;'WITNESS: Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.ye";WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

BntWITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.ButWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
now it's
X
now it's WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

"Where'sWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.'Where'sWITNESS: Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847."Ware'sWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
my eppylet? [47]Ornamental fringed shoulder piece on military uniforms in the nineteenth century.
X
my eppylet? [47]Ornamental fringed shoulder piece on military uniforms in the nineteenth century. WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

here Sawin, WITNESS: Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.here, Sawin WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.here, Sawin, WITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

step andWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.step, andWITNESS: New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.step an'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
fetch it!
X
fetch it!WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

AndWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.An'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
mind your
X
mind your WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

eyes,WITNESS: National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.eye,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
be thund'rin' [48]According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, "a euphemism common in New England, for the profane English expression devilish. Perhaps derived from the belief, common formerly, that thunder was caused by the Prince of the Air, for some of whose accomplishments consult Cotton Mather." spry,
X
be thund'rin' [48]According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, "a euphemism common in New England, for the profane English expression devilish. Perhaps derived from the belief, common formerly, that thunder was caused by the Prince of the Air, for some of whose accomplishments consult Cotton Mather." spry, WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

or d—;nWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.or hangWITNESS: Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.or, damnWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
ye, you shall ketch
X
ye, you shall ketch WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

it!"WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.it!'WITNESS: Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.
X

Orthographic Variance

Wal, asWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Wal asWITNESS: Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.a'l asWWITNESS: Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Wal, ezWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
the Doctor
X
the Doctor WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

ses,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.sez,WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
some pork will bile so, [49]"Some pork will boil so" or "some pork will boil that way" was a nineteenth-century colloquialism that meant "that's just the way it is." but by
X
some pork will bile so, [49]"Some pork will boil so" or "some pork will boil that way" was a nineteenth-century colloquialism that meant "that's just the way it is." but by WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

mightyWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.mighty,WITNESSES: Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
Ef I
X
Ef I WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

hadWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.hedWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
some on 'em to hum, I'd give 'em linkum vity, [50]Lingum vitae, a tree whose dense, hard wood was used to make, among other things, police truncheons and "billy clubs."
X
some on 'em to hum, I'd give 'em linkum vity, [50]Lingum vitae, a tree whose dense, hard wood was used to make, among other things, police truncheons and "billy clubs."WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I'd play the rogue's march [51]A tune, of English origin, played when a soldier is expelled dishonorably from the army. Oxford English Dictionary, "rogue's march," accessed August 28, 2014, http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/166894. on their hides
X
I'd play the rogue's march [51]A tune, of English origin, played when a soldier is expelled dishonorably from the army. Oxford English Dictionary, "rogue's march," accessed August 28, 2014, http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/166894. on their hides WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

andWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.an'WITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
other music
X
other music WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

follerin',—WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.follerin'—WITNESSES: Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
But I must close my letter
X
But I must close my letter WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

hereWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.here,WITNESSES: Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
for one on 'em 's ahollerin',
X
for one on 'em 's ahollerin',WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
These Anglosaxon ossifers—wal,
X
These Anglosaxon ossifers—wal, WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Punctuation Variance

tain'tWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.taintWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
no use
X
no use WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

a jawin',WITNESS: Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.ajawin',WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
I'm safe enlisted
X
I'm safe enlisted WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Orthographic Variance

forWITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.ferWITNESS: Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
the war,
X
the war,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.
X

Substantive Variance

Yourn,WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.Yourn, BIRDOFREDOM SAWIN.WITNESS: Texas Union (San Augustine, TX), October 16, 1847.
BIRDOFREDOM SAWIN.
X
BIRDOFREDOM SAWIN.WITNESSES: Boston Courier (Boston, MA), August 18, 1847.National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, NY), August 26, 1847.Liberator (Boston, MA), August 27, 1847.Littell's Living Age (Boston, MA), September 11, 1847.New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, NH), November 11, 1847.Meliboeus-Hipponax: The Biglow Papers. Cambridge: G. Nichols, 1848.

Notes

  1. Joseph T. Buckingham (1779–1861), editor of the Boston Courier, and according to newspaper historian Frank Luther Mott, "one of the most respected newspaper men in New England." Mott, American Journalism: A History of Newspapers in the United States through 260 Years: 1690 to 1950 (New York: Macmillan, 1950), 262.Go back
  2. Annual state militia drill.Go back
  3. A town near Concord, Massachusetts.Go back
  4. According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, "a sort of [military] muster in masquerade."Go back
  5. In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse. In the 1848 book edition, this note appears as a footnote.Go back
  6. In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse. In the 1848 book edition, this note appears as a footnote.Go back
  7. According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, "ninepence, twelve and a half cents."Go back
  8. A hangman’s rope.Go back
  9. In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse.Go back
  10. According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, a "buster" is a "roistering blade; used also as a general superlative."Go back
  11. Caleb Cushing (1800–1879) was Massachusetts state legislator who defended the war (which was unpopular in Massachusetts from the outset) and urged the legislature to fund a volunteer regiment. When the Whig-dominated legislature refused, Cushing resigned and spent $12,000 of his own money to organize the First Massachusetts Volunteers regiment, of which he became colonel (he was later promoted to brigadier general). Cushing broke his ankle while stepping off a sidewalk in the Matamoros town square to make way for a Mexican woman to pass. He was subsequently mocked in the press for injuring himself while "courting senoritas." See John M. Belohlavek, "Race, Progress, and Destiny: Caleb Cushing and the Quest for American Empire” in Manifest Destiny and Empire: American Antebellum Expansionism, ed. Sam W. Haynes and Christopher Morris (College Station: University of Texas at Arlington; Texas A&M University Press, 1997), 38; and Belohlavek, Broken Glass: Caleb Cushing and the Shattering of the Union (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2005), 199.Go back
  12. Faneuil Hall, a Boston meeting hall built in 1742.Go back
  13. John Augustus Bolles (1809–1878), who was Massachusetts secretary of state in 1843, published "Essay on a Congress of Nations, for the Pacific Adjustment of International Disputes" with the American Peace Society in 1839. He presented Lieutenant Colonel Isaac Wright at the Faneuil Hall rally on January 23, 1847, on behalf of subscribers supporting the First Massachusetts Regiment. Frank Beverly Williams, "Notes," in The Writings of James Russell Lowell: Poems by James Russell Lowell (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1892), 8:400. Go back
  14. In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse. In the 1848 book edition, this note appears as a footnote.Go back
  15. Robert Rantoul Jr. (1805–1852), a Boston lawyer appointed as US district attorney for Massachusetts in 1846. Rantoul was best remembered for his spirited opposition to capital punishment. See Luther Hamilton, ed., Memoirs, Speeches, and Writings of Robert Rantoul (Boston: John P. Jewett, 1854).Go back
  16. According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, "their bowels."Go back
  17. Antonio van Zant (1810–1877), an English magician and ventriloquist who lived in the United States after 1834 and performed under the name "Signor Blitz."Go back
  18. A public institution that offered lectures, debates, drama, and entertainment to a local community. On the lyceum movement in nineteenth-century America, see Carl Bode, The American Lyceum: Town Meeting of the Mind (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1968).Go back
  19. National symbols were used to recruit volunteers, rally troops in the field, and build consensus at home. According to historian Robert Johannsen, "the Mexican War was the first national conflict in which [national symbols] played an important part. The soldiers, like their countrymen back home, saw in their symbols—the flag, the bald eagle, the national songs—objective representations of the nation's democratic faith." Johannsen, To the Halls of the Montezumas: The Mexican War in the American Imagination (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 52.Go back
  20. Dry goods: Merchandise such as textiles, ready-to-wear clothes, and other items distinct from those sold in grocery stores.Go back
  21. In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse. In the 1848 book edition, this note appears as a footnote.Go back
  22. Capital of Coahuila in Mexico, captured by General Zachary Taylor on November 16, 1846. US troops stationed in Saltillo fought against Mexican general Santa Anna's forces in the Battle of Buena Vista, a nearby city, in February 1847. See David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, The Mexican War (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2006), 109–13.Go back
  23. Salt River was a popular symbol in the mid-nineteenth-century United States for political defeat. For more on this nickname, see Liz Hutter, "'Ho for Salt River!': Politics, Loss, and Satire," Common-Place 7, no. 3 (April 2007), http://www.common-place.org/vol-07/no-03/hutter/; and Hans Sperber and James N. Tidwell, "Words and Phrases in American Politics: Fact and Fiction about Salt River," American Speech 26, no. 4 (December 1951): 241–47.Go back
  24. A purplish potato grown in New England and Nova Scotia.Go back
  25. In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse.Go back
  26. According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, a "whopper" is "an uncommonly large lie; as, that General Taylor is in favor of the Wilmot Proviso."Go back
  27. A rope used as a lasso.Go back
  28. In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse. In the 1848 book edition, this note appears as a footnote.Go back
  29. A dung beetle.Go back
  30. In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse. In the 1848 book edition, this note appears as a footnote.Go back
  31. Isaac Hull Wright (1814–1886) was a Massachusetts state senator before raising a company of Irishmen to serve in the First Massachusetts Regiment. He took over command of this regiment after Caleb Cushing was promoted to brigadier general. See Massachusetts Historical Society, "'Under the Commission of Massachusetts We Shall March Forward to the Mountain Plains of the Aztecs': Recruiting Volunteers for the First Massachusetts Volunteer Regiment during the Mexican War," accessed August 27, 2014, http://www.masshist.org/objects/2012november.php.Go back
  32. A bedbug.Go back
  33. Yellow fever: an acute viral disease that is spread by mosquitos and attacks the body's internal organs, including the liver, whose failure lends the sufferer's skin a yellow hue. Symptoms include nausea, fever, chills, and muscle pain. Yellow fever was a major peril for US soldiers in Mexico, and General Winfield Scott even factored in yellow fever season when planning the invasion of Veracruz in October 1846. Heidler and Heidler, The Mexican War, 89, 138n.Go back
  34. Also known as "el negro vomito," the final stage of yellow fever, wherein the victim experiences bloody vomiting. Heidler and Heidler, The Mexican War, 138n.Go back
  35. "Exile Poles": Biglow refers to a wave of Polish emigrants—many of them intellectual and political elites—during the "Great Immigration," which began after the November Uprising of 1830–31. See Slawomir R. Kalembka, "'Great' Polish Political Emigration (1831–1870)," in Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions, accessed August 27, 2014, http://www.ohio.edu/chastain/index.htm.Go back
  36. In the newspaper reprints, Biglow's note appears within the line of Sawin's verse. In the 1848 book edition, this note appears as a footnote.Go back
  37. In his seminal history of the construction of race in the United States, Reginald Horsman claims that the US-Mexico War was the "catalyst in overt adoption of racial Anglo-Saxonism." This racist discourse portrayed Mexican citizens as a "mongrel race adulterated by extensive interbreeding with Indians," and they were "lumped together with Indians and blacks as an inferior race." Horsman, Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), 198, 208–13.Go back
  38. In 1 Kings 10, the Queen of Sheba, hearing of the wisdom of Solomon of Israel, travels there to test him with a series of questions.Go back
  39. Pinions: Eagle wings. Cushing was an ardent expansionist, which he often defended in terms of Anglo-Saxon superiority. For instance, in 1857 he said, "It happens that men, nations, races, may, must, will perish before us. That is inevitable. There can be no change for the better save at the expense of that which is. Out of decay springs fresh life." Quoted in Belohlavek, "Race, Progress, and Destiny," 21.Go back
  40. "A painful and humiliating means of hurrying one by holding his seat and neck and forcing him to walk." Barbara Ann Kipfer, ed., Dictionary of American Slang, 4th ed. (New York: Collins, 2000), 186.Go back
  41. Andrew Jackson (1767–1845), the seventh US president (1829–37) and leader of the Jacksonian Democrats.Go back
  42. During General William Worth's siege of Puebla in the summer of 1847, US troops were warned that Mexican forces planned to poison them. John C. Pinheiro, Manifest Ambitions: James K. Polk and Civil-Military Relations during the Mexican War (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2007), 93.Go back
  43. Due to a shortage of iron, the Mexican army used mostly copper balls for their cannons; these were less effective than iron cannonballs because they were more lightweight, and so they often fell short of their targets. David A. Clary, Eagles and Empire: The United States, Mexico, and the Struggle for a Continent (New York: Bantam, 2009), 109, 137.Go back
  44. Desertion rates in the US-Mexico War were high. Of a total 26,922 soldiers enlisted in the regular army, 2,849 deserted; 3,900 of 59,000 volunteers deserted. Whereas regulars who deserted had bounties put on their heads, volunteers could desert or obtain discharges with relative ease, especially before their regiments arrived in Mexico. See Paul Foos, A Short, Offhand, Killing Affair: Soldiers and Social Conflict during the Mexican-American War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), 100–112.Go back
  45. A nickname for Massachusetts due to its proximity to several bays.Go back
  46. To drink a small amount of alcohol.Go back
  47. Ornamental fringed shoulder piece on military uniforms in the nineteenth century.Go back
  48. According to Lowell’s glossary in the 1848 book edition, "a euphemism common in New England, for the profane English expression devilish. Perhaps derived from the belief, common formerly, that thunder was caused by the Prince of the Air, for some of whose accomplishments consult Cotton Mather."Go back
  49. "Some pork will boil so" or "some pork will boil that way" was a nineteenth-century colloquialism that meant "that's just the way it is."Go back
  50. Lingum vitae, a tree whose dense, hard wood was used to make, among other things, police truncheons and "billy clubs."Go back
  51. A tune, of English origin, played when a soldier is expelled dishonorably from the army. Oxford English Dictionary, "rogue's march," accessed August 28, 2014, http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/166894.Go back